永利皇宫 > 中小学教育 > 拾个月大的新生儿就会反映双语教育的优势,会

原标题:拾个月大的新生儿就会反映双语教育的优势,会

浏览次数:56 时间:2019-11-08

图片 1会说双语者大脑反应速度更快

The benefits of being bilingual can be seen in 11-month-old babies

Speaking two languages can actually help offset some effectsof aging on the brain, a new study has found.

11个月大的婴儿就能体现双语教育的优势

一项新研究发现,说两种语言实际上能够帮助消除衰老对大脑的影响。

Numerous studies point to the benefits of speaking more than one language, with research showing that bilingual adults have a higher volume of gray matter and could recover more easily from brain injuries.

Researchers tested how long it took participants to switchfrom one cognitive task to another, something that’s known to takelonger for older adults, said lead researcher, Brian Gold, aneuroscientist at the University of Kentucky. As he spoke toABCNews.com from his cell phone, he said he was also in a grocerystore choosing between gala and granny smith apples — a perfectexample of switching between cognitive tasks in everyday life。

大量研究表明会说外语的优势,一些研究证明会说两种语言的成年人在中枢神经系统有较多的灰质,并且这些人还能更好地从脑损伤中恢复。

研究者测试了参与者们从一个认知活动转换到另一个需要的时间。主管研究员布莱恩·古尔德是肯塔基大学的神经学家,他表示老年人转换任务需要的时间更长。当他和ABCNews的记者在手机上说话时,他说自己正在一家蔬果店考虑到底是要买小富士苹果还是美国青苹果,这就日常生活中认知活动最典型的例子。

Scientists have also found that the positive effects of bilingualism can be seen in young children, but a new study suggests that the benefits of exposing a person to more than one language can be seen even when we're just a few months old.

“It has big implications these days because our population isaging more and more,” Gold said. “Seniors are living longer, andthat’s a good thing, but it’s only a good thing to the extent thattheir brains are healthy。”

科学家还在幼儿身上发现双语学习的积极效果,最新的研究表明,多语言环境下成长的孩子,几个月就能体现出效果。

“这个研究有重大的意义,因为我们的人口现在越来越老龄化了,”古尔德说。“老年人活的时间更长了,这是件好事,但是前提是他们的大脑要保持健康。”

"Our results suggest that before they even start talking, babies raised in bilingual households are getting practice at tasks related to executive function," said neuroscientist Naja Ferjan Ramírez from the University of Washington. "This suggests that bilingualism shapes not only language development, but also cognitive development more generally."

Gold’s team compared task-switching speeds for younger andolder adults, knowing they would find slower speeds in the olderpopulation because of previous studies. However, they found thatolder adults who spoke two languages were able to switch mentalgears faster than those who didn’t。

“我们的研究结果显示,在孩子开始说话前,双语环境实际上提供接受了执行力的训练,”华盛顿大学的神经系统科学家Naja Ferjan Ramírez说,“双语教育不仅塑造语言能力,还从总体上培养认知能力。”

古尔德的团队比较了年轻人和老年人转换任务的速度,基于之前的研究,他们知道将得到的结果是老年人转换任务的速度更慢。然而他们又发现,会说两种语言的老年人转换思维的速度要比只说一种语言的要快。

According to the researchers, just as babies are about to turn 1 year old and start speaking themselves, they begin to make a change in how they process the sounds of spoken words, and this is where being raised in a bilingual household can be an advantage.

The study only looked at life-long bilinguals, defined in thestudy as people who had spoken a second language daily since theywere at least 10 years old。

据研究者所说,当婴儿长到一岁开始说话时,他们开始改变处理语音的方式,这一点就能体现双语环境的优势。

研究的对象仅为一辈子都说两种语言的人,一辈子说两种语言在这个研究中的定义是:从10岁以前开始每天都使用第二种语言的人。

"Monolingual babies show a narrowing in their perception of sounds at about 11 months of age – they no longer discriminate foreign-language sounds they successfully discriminated at six months of age,"said one of the team, Patricia Kuhl. "But babies raised listening to two languages seem to stay 'open' to the sounds of novel languages longer than their monolingual peers, which is a good and highly adaptive thing for their brains to do."

First, Gold and his team asked 30 people, who were eitherbilingual or monolingual, to look at a series of colored shapes andrespond with the name of each shape by pushing a button. Then, theypresented the participants with a similar series of colored shapesand asked them to respond with what colors the shapes were bypushing a button. Finally, researchers presented participants witha series of colored shapes, but they mixed prompts for either ashape or a color to test participants’ task-switching times。

“单语言环境下的婴儿从11个月开始开始逐渐缩小感知声音的范围——他们不再区分外语发音,在6个月大的时候还能区分,”研究组的Patricia Kuhl说,“和单语言环境的婴儿比较,听两种语言成长起来的婴儿听觉系统似乎对外来语言开放的时间会更长。对于大脑发育来说,这是极好的事,能够培养高度的适应能力。”

首先,古尔德和他的团队让30个人看一系列有颜色的形状,然后按下按钮回答他们看到的是哪种形状,这30个人中既有说一种语言也有会说两种语言的人。然后,他们再给实验参与者看类似的上了色的形状,让他们按按钮回答他们看到形状的颜色是什么。最后,研究者们给参与者一系列有颜色的形状,不过问题中既有让参与者回答形状的,又有让他们回答颜色的,测试他们任务转换所花的时间。

The findings, published in Developmental Science, are based on observations made of 16 11-month-old babies who took part in the experiment. Eight of the babies came from families where English was the only language spoken, whereas the remaining eight came from Spanish-English households.

The bilingual people were able to respond faster to theshifting prompts。

研究成果发表在《发展科学》(Developmental Science),实验基于对16名11个月婴儿的观察,其中8名来自只说英语的家庭,另外8名来自同时说西班牙语和英语的家庭。

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